The History Of Photography

The history of photography is a sphere of a man's philosophical and scientific thoughts fused together in its integrated whole. It takes its roots during ancient period when Aristotle and Euclid were examining the possibilities of pinhole camera to reflect light rays into a picture (Davenport 4). At that point it received ample backing by the innovation of a camera Obscura by a Byzantine scholar Anthemius of Tralles (Davenport 6). Since then, various scholars and inventors were trying their hand to come forward with a special substance of chemicals (silver nitrate and silver chloride) to be able to reflect right of different shades.

The next attempt devoted in making a picture was credited to the French inventor Joseph Nicephore Niepce in the early 19th century when he pioneered the permanent photograph during 1826 which was thereafter bettered by William Henry Fox Talbot in 1836 (Davenport 9). It was not until the passage of 70 years since the invention, when new ideas imposed the popularity of camera and especially photographs.

The Kodak Brownie Box Camera (1900) was a novelty among the photographers because of the easiness and apt while clicking photographs thereafter. (Davenport 67). Several inventors lend their ingenuity to bring about more perfection of photography. The twentieth century was a period when cinema was invented concurrently with photography. Technicolor saw its beginnings following the progress of scientific-technological and it also saw the emergence of Fuji Photofilm alongwith Kodakchrome ensured the reality of color photograph. (Gernsheim 136). Present era digital photographs ironed out the problems through an easy click.

 Nevertheless, the primary problem is linked with the invention and development of the surreal photos. Andre Breton, Man Ray and Lee Miller were the marvels of a surrealistic photograph (Robinson 79). A lot of tweaking on conventional photographs in a surrealistic way helped artists surmount its demerits while giving more interest to the unconscious mind and early human instincts in photograph of a human portrait.

 The chronological study of the staged and motion photography must be considered as regards the overall development of photography. It is concerning the surrealistic process in the photographic process. Staged photography was already present prior to the dawn of motion pictures (Peres 70). Staged photography maintained a stringent vigil on the motionless image of humans and objects surrounding them. Nevertheless, accomplished on a higher plane of Modernism for enhancing the space of an observer's canvas, staged photographs were better shaped with contribution by new surrealists. A case in point is Un Regard Oblique by Robert Doisneau which is prominent illustration of staged photography considered in further discussion.

Motion photography has been built on the milieu of philosophical toys that represented the arrival of motion picture (Marieb 213). Indeed, similar manipulation was reasonably important for surrealists so as to find an authentic platform of a movement exemplified by a sequence of different photographs. In this realm, Duane Michals is considered one of the most accepted and exceptional figure. This work 'His Things are Queer' is a grand exemplar of manipulation combining mirrors, darkness and doubling. (Orvell 168).

 Totally, the above stated photographers and their real photographs have been put to analysis. In order to render it intelligible, reasoning on each of the two photographs looks like the idea of surrealism and several manipulations on a photograph so as to unravel its veiled aspects and reveal them before the observer. On this, the notion of movement in a motion photo and the plan and perception in a still photo has been well developed and backed by an artistic thinking accomplished through a surrealistic vision.

Indeed, as the specialist might mention that the interpretation is obliged on us just by a surplus of ambiguity. (Bruner 9) Therefore to have a peek at the oddity of staged and motion photographs, it should be understood that an overarching conception of an artist (photographer) is the most advantaged. Besides, a significant supposition is, therefore an alternative way to identify each among stated photographs in their purpose and meaning imposed on the photograph.

Robert Doisneau crafts a stunning view on the primary element in his picture. On the face of it, it appears as if the woman's vision is preceding on the photograph (Doane 39). The woman has greater chances to withhold a viewer's attention since her movements and expression on her face manifests a lot regarding her specific intentions to describe the picture before her. The picture content is concealed while an individual can just make his/her personal imaginary construct of what appealed the women. Two persons are standing before the glass plate window. This constitutes a self-styled depiction of the borderline between the two individuals i.e. man & woman while talking about the pictures. The art gallery and the two are certainly at different ends. Naturally the man is ogling at another canvas of a naked women:

Whereas the woman looks at a painting the content of whom remains concealed from the viewer, the man, from the edge of the photograph, stares across her and beyond to another painting, of a naked female, focusing attention on his own voyeuristic craving and nullifying that of the woman (Doane 40).

The narrative mental powers to be understood in this photograph merit an implementation of the philosophical constituent. (Bruner 21). It is obvious that the sense of the photograph happens to be its stage that is considered in variance by the spectators. Actually, the viewers appear to concentrate only on the obscenity of the man who is closely watching the naked female figure while feigning to listen to the woman. The application of high and low angles is optimally implemented so that a viewer could feel himself/herself to be the eye of camera or photographer, especially (Sontag 170). Therefore, the true art appear to collide into a man's instinct. This is the disagreement revealed in the body of the photograph. It is ably favoured by the Modernistic inflows particularly those of Freud.

Susan Sontag is planned to define photography as a melancholic art, a sunset art? (Sontag 15).Duane Michals gives us an opportunity of his game with shadows, darkness, twilight, as bizarre as it might appear, and doubling. He develops a set of postures that are energetically connected to the complete idea of a man's life at its particular intermissions. His tweaking of the photograph probes a viewer into the authenticity of the photograph with due regard to undiluted imagination. The complete symbolization in his series of photograph is thoroughly narrated by Miles Orval:

Michals stated with a scene in a bathroom, and in consecutive images shifts always backward, thus reframing the initial scene in a sequence of photographs which culminates where it started i.e. a automatic arrangement exacting the turns of a Moebius strip which could persist infinitely (Orvell 167-168).

It can be observed, where Doisneau makes use of different angles to reveal the grandeur of the photograph, Michals uses the benefit of different snapshots so as to magnify the feeling through the mechanism and foreshortening taken. Michals photograph, nevertheless needs a recognized vanity? (Sontag 134). Moreover, his adeptness of visualizing at objects from behind renders more reason for a viewer to settle to an astute reflection over the photo. The most preferred themes of the artist manifested in the photograph are sex, morality and spirituality (Peres 182).

Viewing the title of the photograph and its well defined representation, one might perceive of some gay elements are imposed on the photograph. It definitely rallies with the idea of sex and sexuality hinted in the photo. It is amply backed by the idea of imagination and actuality symbolized in the photo. But, this matter requires a specific outlook on what an odd object is: What is odd is the exactness by which we mark object as normal, abnormal and obscene, gay and straight: (Cited in Shapiro 387). To add, one must draw attention to the repetitive characteristics of matter that appear odd. Taking an empty bathroom, it culminates with the same.

Chronological progression marks the importance of a narrative (Bruner 6). Action in a range of time constitutes an indistinct moment that requires to be confined so as to achieve the concept of the moment in life. Therefore Michals could react to these matters by a methodical perceptive and rather reasonable show of a human's life in a series of specific moments.

To sum up, the imagination ideas and reality summarized in this research defines my entire interest. The expertise of vision depicted in two separate photographs cacthes my attention. As regards my appreciation, Doisneau and Michals rendered the art of photography easy to an uninitiated spectator which is truly exacting in reasoning over reality, time and imagination of an artist. As regards me, it was performed ardently coupled with an immense longing by both artists. The stillness of a staged photograph and the dynamics of a moving photograph are properly referred to the idea of sexual relations of humans mystified with the reality's imaginary vision by the two artists. The value that I have soaked out of the research will propel me to make my own designs of reality and imagination in a greater sophistication and creatively full-grown means in order to concisely enlighten my personal vision on a viewer.


Works Cited

Bruner, Jerome. "The Narrative Construction of Reality." Critical Inquiry (1991): 1-52.

Davenport, Alma. The history of photography: an overview. Albuquerque, NM: UNM Press, 1999.

Doane, Mary Ann. Femmes fatales: feminism, film theory, psychoanalysis. London: Routledge, 1991.

Gernsheim, Helmut. A concise history of photography. 3. Chemsford, MA: Courier Dover Publications, 1986.

Marien, Mary Warner. Photography: a cultural history. 2. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2006.

Orvell, Miles. American photography. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Peres, Michael R. The concise Focal encyclopedia of photography: from the first photo on paper to the digital revolution. Boston, MA: Focal Press, 2007.

Robinson, Gerald H. Photography, History & Science. Nevada City, Ca: Carl Mautz Publishing, 2006.

Shapiro, Gary. Archaeologies of vision: Foucault and Nietzsche on seeing and saying. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2003.

Sontag, Susan. On Photography. New York, NY: Picador, 2001.




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